Бетонный завод. Принцип работы.В наши дни, как и много лет назад, при строительных работах чаще других материалов используется бетон. Его получают смешением таких составляющих, как песок, щебень, цемент и вода. Щебень и песок выступают в роли наполнителей, а цемент с водой обеспечивают прочное сцепление всех компонентов полученной смеси между собой. Бетон маркируется в соответствии с количеством цемента в бетонных смесях. Более высокой марке соответствует и большее содержание цемента. Однако не следует пренебрегать установленными пропорциями, чтобы не получился нежелательный итог.
Широкая популярность бетона обеспечивается непревзойденными качественными показателями и невысокой ценой. Производят бетон на бетонном заводе. Смешение всех компонентов осуществляется в бетоносмесителях, куда материалы поступают с мест хранения. Так наполнители (песок, щебень) складируются в специально отведенных незакрытых местах бетонного завода. К таким местам должны быть подведены пути для ж/д вагонов, в которых доставляют материалы, и автотранспорта. Сначала имеющимся транспортом компоненты доставляются к металлическим бункерам, куда они загружаются и предварительно подготавливаются перед поступлением в смеситель бетона. Из бункеров они высыпаются прямо на транспортер с тензодатчиками, по которым контролируется необходимый вес компонента для производства бетона нужной марки. Затем лента транспортера подает щебень и песок в специальный подъемный механизм – скип, который представляет собой тележку для сыпучих продуктов (песка и щебня). Заполнение или освобождение тележки фиксируется с помощью датчиков положения.
Местами хранения цемента являются специально предназначенные для этой цели силосы с конусообразным днищем для удобной выгрузки цемента. Перед тем, как цемент поступит в бетоносмеситель, он из силоса попадает в винтовой конвейер (шнек) и по нему транспортируется в специальную емкость, служащую для дозирования нужного количества цемента в смеситель.
Смесители бетона подразделяются на смесители с принудительным режимом работы и гравитационные. В первом случае смешение производится в барабане с помощью вращающихся лопаток, а во втором компоненты перемешиваются в крутящемся барабане с помощью гравитации.
Гравитационные смесители экономичны и надежны, но для производства современных бетонных изделий преимущественно используются принудительные смесители.

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Martret · 19 июля 2015 в 3:51

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